Three logical fallacies

Essay by santoriniUniversity, Bachelor'sA+, May 2005

download word file, 6 pages 4.2

Prepare a 1,050-1,400-word paper, in which you define each of the three fallacies, explain its significance to Critical Thinking, and discuss its general application to Decision Making. Using various sources (Internet, magazines, trade journals, etc.) find organizational examples that illustrate each one of your chosen fallacies. Be sure to use and cite at least four different references in your paper.

Logical fallacies indicate a "mistake in reasoning" as stated by Bashham, Irwin, Nardone, and Wallace (2002). In terms of critical thinking and decision-making these fallacies are seen due to psychological influences that this mistake in reasoning may cause. As we have learned from our text and coursework, critical thinking and decision making are directly correlated to sound decisions that are based on accurate information. In examining the following three fallacies, I will illustrate how the miscalculation of thought processes and lack of critical thinking demonstrate incomplete decisions, whether it by the arguer or the person presented with the fallacy.

Overall, the lack of investigation of facts and specific details demonstrate a willingness to ignore the pertinent information and often times result in visibly unsound decisions or misinterpreted information to the recipient.

As stated by Bashham, Irwin, Nardone, and Wallace (2002, a generalization is a statement that asserts that all or most things of a certain kind have a certain property or characteristic. An example of this fallacy taking place in our society was after September 11, 2001. Residents and citizens of the United States with roots in the Middle East were looked at with suspicion and anxiety. In general, all Middle Eastern natives were seen as possible terrorists, even though our internal voices said something different, at least for most of us. The effect of the tragedy was the prejudicial viewpoints and racial profiling that occurred. There were specific incidents...



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