Crude Oil

Essay by PaperNerd ContributorCollege, Undergraduate November 2001

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Crude oil What is crude oil? Crude oil is a substance found in certain rocks below the earths crust. It is a dark, stick liquid that is usually found with natural gas. It is highly flammable so must not be heated with a naked flame.

How it is formed? Oil was formed by microscopic aquatic organisms getting trapped in airless spaces between sedimentary rocks. These are then altered by contact with surrounding bacteria and clay particles, the core of the earth supplies the energy for this reaction. Oil formes at 100-120 degrees Celsius, but the hydrocarbons are destroyed to leave only natural gas at 175-200degrees Celsius. Oils are usually found 5.5 KM down.

How it is extracted? After the drilling has started specially prepared mud is pumped down into the bore hole making the side into a plaster so it wont cave in, when the drill reaches the oil the oil pressure will make it spurt up so this mud balances the upward pressure.

After the pressure has gone the mud fills the hole bringing the light oil to the top.

What products are made from oil? Burning crude oil itself is very wasteful but when heated with an electric heated to 35 degrees propane and butane are released, 75-300 motor spirits come off, 300-450 is Paraffin, Diesel comes off at 450-650, then fuel oils at 700 degrees what is left is used as tar for roads. Figure 1 shows what things are made from crude oil.

Environmental impacts Oil plants are the biggest cause of the greenhouse effect as it releases CO2 into the atmosphere. There are theories that oil is like lubrication for the earth and removing it gives us more and bigger earthquakes. There is one known fact that can be looked upon as good for the...



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