Boylan notes

Essay by williocomA+, June 2005

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* 634 - 644 = time of Arab expansion (Islam remained a chiefly Arab religion)

o After they went into North Africa many non Arab people converted

* Many ppl saw Islam as a well organized life

* Way of life did not conflict w/ Muslim teachings (culture remained diverse)

o Also Muslims tolerated Jews and Christians (more diverse)

Political Divisions in the Islamic Empire:

* Umayyads = strong military leaders

* Muslim territories became dissatisfied w/ Umayyad rule

* Non Arabs = angry b/c were treated like 2nd class citizens

* 969 empire = split in 3 parts

o Baghdad

o Cordova

o Cairo

The Abbasid Dynasty

* 750 Umayyad dynasty ended

* Rival family Addasis raised army and defeated them in Persia and Iraq

* Addasis began new dynasty in the middle east (ruled from the 8th to the 13th century)

* 762 the capitol of Islam was moved to Baghdad

* Began to employ Turks as mercenaries to strengthen armies

* Abbasid caliphs surrounded themselves w/ luxury

* Islamic civilization bloomed under their rule

o Period of greatest development

* Arabic replaced Greek as dominant language of Middle East and North Africa

* Harun al-Rashid (786 - 809) = friendly w/ Charlemagne the Frankish emperor

* Another made friends w/ the ruler of the T'ang Dynasty

The Muslims in Spain

* 750 one Umayyad, Abdurrahman, escaped to Spain

* 756 declares himself ruler of the Spanish Muslims

* Ruled from Capitol @ Cordova

The Fatimids

* Early 10th century next major division happens

* Shiites in N Africa gain power + set up caliph = distant descendent of Muhammad's daughter Fatima

* Added Egypt to their empire

* Made Cairo capitol

* Went form Morocco to Syria

* Weakened Abbasid rule

Rule Under the Turks:

The Seljuk...

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