Essay by PaperNerd ContributorCollege, Undergraduate November 2001

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ADAPTATIONS "¢Skin color, eye color & hair color are all evidence of natural selection at work, as humans have adapted in concert with their environments. Even your body type may be an adaptation to environmental stresses.

"¢Bergmann's Rule - animals adapted to colder climates have larger, more compact bodies to preserve heat, and animals adapted to warm climates will have smaller bodies or longer bodies for better thermo-regulation.

"¢Allen's Rule - animals in cold climates have short, stout limbs in order to conserve heat, while animals adapted to hot climates have long, slender limbs to dissipate heat faster.

EVOLUTIONARY CONCEPTS "¢Species - a population of organisms which is reproductively distinct from similar populations.

"¢Microevolution - short-term evolutionary trends that occur within a species over relatively few generations.

"¢Macroevolution - long-term evolutionary changes that take place over millions of years.

"¢Anagenesis - the slow, gradual transformation of a species over time.

"¢Punctuated Equilibrium - theory that most evolutionary change has taken place in short bursts.

DARWINIAN FITNESS "¢Darwinian Fitness - a measure of an organism''s ability to compete in the struggle for existence "¢Fitness is related to an organisms ability: "¢ 1. to survive long enough to produce offspring "¢ 2. economy of energy in survival activities "¢ 3. success in attracting the most mates "¢ 4. success in attracting the best mates "¢ 5. number of offspring who live to reproduce "¢ 6. success in the reproduction of close relatives PARENTING STRATEGIES "¢K-strategy - a parental care strategy where reproduction usually consists of a very small number of offspring per berthing episode, characterized by a high parental investment in the care of young and their development to adulthood.

"¢R-strategy - a care strategy where reproduction usually consists of a high number of offspring per birthing episode, characterized by very low...

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