1.) Effects of mobile sources on global warming, the environment

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1.) Effects of mobile sources on global warming, the environment and humans Mobile sources, the leading contributor of air pollution, produce several important air pollutants, such as, air toxics and green house gases. Air toxics are pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health problems such as heart problems, asthma symptoms, eye and lung irritation, and premature death. Air toxics are also harmful to the environment, Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) trap heat in the earth's atmosphere contributing to global climate change.

Benzene a component in gasoline is a cancer-causing hydrocarbon (CGHG) derived from petroleum. Benzene emissions occur in exhaust as a byproduct of fuel combustion and also occur when gasoline evaporates.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas that forms when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. CO is a component of exhaust from motor vehicles and engines. When condition are poor for combustion carbon monoxide emission increase.

Poor conditions are when it is very cold and at high elevations where there is less oxygen in the air to burn the fuel. Carbon Monioxide reduces the ability of blood to bring oxygen to body cells and tissues. It is more hazardous to people who have heart or circulatory problems and people who have damaged lungs or breathing passages.

Nitrogen oxides form when fuel is burned at high temperatures such as in motor vehicle engines. Mobile sources are responsible for more then half of nitrogen oxide emission in the United States. Nitrogen oxides can travel long distances, so that non-urban areas can also be highly affected. Nitrogen oxide causes health and environmental problems such as ozone and smog along with contributing to the formation of particle matter in the earth's atmosphere.

Particulate matter is tiny particles or liquid droplets suspended in the air that can contain a variety of chemical components. Virtually all particulate matter from mobile sources in PM2.5, particulate matter that are less than 2.5 microns in diameter. Particulate matter is caused by diesel vehicles and by road dust suspended in the air by moving vehicles. These particles are the leading contributor to haze and are generally more harmful to human health because they can penetrate more deeply into the lungs. Particulate matter can cause nose and throat irritation, lung damage and bronchitis.

Insert 3 Pie charts!!!!! Hydrocarbons Nitrogen oxides Particle matter 2.) Energy consumption The petroleum shortages caused by OPEC in 1973 began the world's search for more efficient homes, factories, and transportation systems. Almost thirty years later, residential energy use is about the same, industrial energy consumption is down, and transportation energy use is up. Transportation consumes more than 20% of the world's total primary energy and produces much of the world's air pollution. In the next thirty years the amount of cars on the world's roads is predicted to double. This will cause private transportation to need 2 ½ times more energy and produce 2 ½ times more air pollution. By the year 2100 the world will need 10 times more energy and transportation will consume 40% of this.

The automobile is responsible for nearly 90% of the energy consumed for travel in the US, about 80% in Western Europe, and nearly 60% in Japan. Today there are approximately 400 million cars in the world, by 2030 this number should reach over one billion. In countries that are still developing the amount of cars on the road are growing even faster. By 2010 India is projected to have 36 times more cars then it did in 1990. China will have 91 times more cars; Mexico will have 2 ½ times more cars, and Eastern Europe will probably double their automobile population.

In a typical US city, motor vehicle emission account for 30%-50% o hydrocarbon, 80%-90% of carbon monoxide, and 40%-60% of nitrogen oxide emission. Cars and light trucks are responsible for about 20% of the nation's carbon dioxide, which is a powerful greenhouse gas. Motor vehicle carbon emissions are essentially proportional to total fuel consumed. The problem is in the up coming decades the greatest growth in the automobile population will occur in developing countries which can least afford clean technologies. By 2025 developing countries will be emitting 16.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide annually due to automobiles.

Mass transit is often mentioned as an alternative to private cars, however the most effective mass transit system in the world is the automobile. The automobile transportation system provides schedules and routes that are tailored to individual needs, in addition users individually purchase, maintain, and fuel the transportation device, and only the relatively inexpensive roadways require public funding.

GRAPHS!!!! 3.) Pollution Control Emission standards are rules and regulation that set limits on how much pollution can be emitted from a give source. Vehicle and equipment manufactures have responded to many mobile sources by redesigning vehicles and engines to reduce pollution.

The Catalytic Converter is an anti-pollution device located between a vehicles engine and tail pipe. They work by facilitation chemical reaction that covert exhaust pollutants such as CO2 and nitrogen oxides to normal atmospheric gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water.

The 1970 Clear Air Act: Required that the EPA reduce daily emission of the most potent air pollutants, those know to cause serious health problems such as cancer and birth defects. These pollutants are referred to as; hazardous air pollutants, toxic air pollutants, and air toxics.

In 1990 congress directed the EPA to develop standards for controlling daily emissions of air toxics from each major source. The EPA and state governments have reduced emission of benzene and other toxic pollutants from mobile sources by requiring the use of reformulated gasoline and placing limits on tail pipe emissions.

Insert mobile sources graph!!!! Today, automobiles operated at approximately 15% efficiency. According to best estimates it would be possible to double automobile energy efficiency to about 30% . Advanced power systems and reduced vehicle road loads are necessary in order to make significant gains in automobile energy intensity.

Electric cars produce far less harmful emissions and save about 10% to 30% in primary energy. Advanced fuel cell vehicles using methanol reformed on-board into hydrogen may be as much as 2 ½ times more efficient then today's cars. Practical automobile fuel cells, however, present enormous economic and technical challenges.

Technology alone may not be able to solve the world's energy problems, mainly do the technical limitations, but also due to the economic realities to alternative energy systems. A reduction in personal transportation energy intensity is essential. Energy conservation is the most economically sound and environmentally friendly option.

A major problem contributing to the automobile's high-energy intensity is low vehicle occupancy. Transportation energy intensity is a measure of the energy consumed per passenger mile traveled. When a vehicle is lightly loaded, energy intensity goes up because the vehicle consumes about the same amount of energy, regardless of the number of occupants. Operating large, multi-passenger cars with only one or two occupants is therefore considered the most wasteful habit affecting the world's consumption of transportation energy.

There are small acts we can each do to make a difference on the road. When running errands combine trips so you are not using your car for single-purpose trips. Give your car a break, in nice weather walk or ride a bicycle. When you drive keep your car tuned up and its tires properly inflated to save on fuel costs. Carpool, by leaving your car at home just tow days a week will reduce your carbon dioxide emissions by 1,590 pounds a year. If purchasing a new vehicle, consider a fuel smart car, one that gets more miles to the gallon then your current vehicle, and match your vehicle to your needs.

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